研究指出哪些蔬果最能預防體重增加


  【24drs.com】一篇線上發表於1月27日BMJ期刊的研究指出,吃越多富含某些類黃酮的食物,可能有助於成年人預防體重隨著時間增加。
  
  第一作者、麻塞諸塞州波士頓哈佛TH Chan公衛學院研究助理Monica Bertoia博士指出,我們探討了7種不同類型的類黃酮,我們發現,與體重維持較佳有關的類別是:黃烷醇、花青素、類黃酮聚合物。
  
  Bertoia博士表示,蘋果、梨、紅色漿果這些水果是類黃酮的主要來源,但是,也可以在紅椒等蔬菜中發現。
  
  這是第一篇探討攝取各種類黃酮亞類與體重增加之關聯的研究,納入超過124,000名美國男性與女性的資料、追蹤最長達24年。
  
  以前的研究認為,類黃酮在減重方面有所影響,大部份是聚焦在綠茶所含的flavon-3-ol這個亞類,不過,研究樣本都不大。
  
  這篇新研究的資料來自參與護士健康研究(NHS)、護士健康研究II (NHSII)、醫護人員追蹤研究(HPFS)這三個前瞻研究的124,086名女性與男性。
  
  研究對象來自美國各州、年齡為27-65歲;在1986-2011年間,他們每2年自我報告他們的體重、生活型態習慣、最近的醫療診斷,另外,他們每4年1次、使用經過驗證的半定量食物頻率問卷(FFQs)紀錄他們的飲食。
  
  研究者探討了7種的類黃酮亞類:黃烷酮類、花青素、flavan-3-ols、原花青素、類黃酮聚合物、黃烷醇類、黃酮類。
  
  針對研究結果,他們校正了與體重變化有關的生活型態因素,包括運動、看電視,以及攝取含糖飲料、炸物、酒、咖啡因、全穀類、醃漬肉品等17種飲食因素。
  
  結果顯示,每4年,婦女體重增加平均值為2.9磅(NHS)到4.4磅(NHSII),男性平均增加2.2磅(HPFS)。
  
  Bertoia博士指出,雖然這數據看起來很小,但是這些體重會隨著時間長期累加。
  
  她表示,只要預防增加一點體重或減輕一點體重,對你的健康和心血管疾病、糖尿病、癌症風險也會有影響,對於整個人口的健康也會有巨大影響。
  
  校正生活型態因素之後的研究結果認為,攝取較多特定類黃酮亞類食物的人,隨著時間增加的體重比較少。
  
  下述的類黃酮亞類對體重減少的影響最大,每天每一附加標準差(SD)/day),花青素效果為減少-0.23磅,類黃酮聚合物減少0.18磅,黃烷醇減少0.16磅。
  
  在4年期間,每天每增加攝取1標準差,與體重增加少了0.16-0.23磅(相當於0.07-0.10公斤)有關。
  
  將纖維攝取也納入之後,花青素、原花色素、類黃酮聚合物總量的結果依舊顯著,但是其他亞類的結果變成不顯著。
  
  每天吃多種水果、每種各1份,可以提供遠高於1標準差的類黃酮量,讓這些研究結果付諸實現,舉例來說,每天只要吃半份藍莓,將可增加攝取花青素量達12個標準差。
  
  Bertoia博士指出,富含花青素的食物包括黑莓、紅葡萄、覆盆子、櫻桃、藍莓、草莓等暗紅色水果,最後面兩種水果還和茶、山核桃、蘋果一樣,富含類黃酮聚合物;茶也富含黃烷醇,也可見於洋蔥和某些豆類。
  
  根據Bertoia博士表示,因為這篇是觀察型研究,研究結論僅限於這些研究發現是否和飲食品質改善、類黃酮類、或其他因素有關,其他研究限制包括採用自我報告的FFQ。
  
  Bertoia博士表示,儘管如此,本篇報告建構於之前的研究基礎,有助於強化每個人都應該多吃水果和蔬菜之建議,提供有關哪些蔬果應在未來的指引中列為優先建議的更多資訊。
  
  目前,在美國,大多數的人每天吃不到1份水果、不到2份蔬菜,作者們建議,應增加到2份水果與2.5份蔬菜。
  
  資料來源:http://www.24drs.com/
  
  Native link:Study Informs on Which Fruits and Veggies Best Prevent Weight Gain

Study Informs on Which Fruits and Veggies Best Prevent Weight Gain

By Veronica Hackethal, MD
Medscape Medical News

Eating more foods high in certain flavonoids may help prevent weight gain over time for adults, according to findings from a study published online January 27 in the BMJ.

"We looked at seven different types of flavonoids, and we found that the classes that were associated with better weight maintenance were flavonol, anthocyanins, and flavonoid polymers," commented first author Monica Bertoia, MPH, PhD, research associate at the Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

Fruits like apples, pears, and red berries represent the major sources of flavonoids, but they can also be found in some vegetables like red peppers, Dr Bertoia said.

Preventing a Bit of Weight Gain Is Important for Health

The study is the first to look at links between intake of various flavonoid subclasses and weight gain. It included data on over 124,000 women and men in the United States who were followed for up to 24 years.

Past studies have suggested that flavonoids may play a role in weight loss. Most have focused on the flavon-3-ol subclass found in green tea, though, and have had small sample sizes.

The new study drew on data from 124,086 women and men who participated in three prospective studies: the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII), and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS).

Participants were aged 27 to 65 and came from all 50 states of the United States; they self-reported their weight, lifestyle habits, and recent medical diagnoses every 2 years between 1986 and 2011. They also documented their diet every 4 years using validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaires (FFQs).

Researchers looked at seven flavonoid subclasses: flavanones, anthocyanins, flavan-3-ols, proanthocyanidins, flavonoid polymers, flavonols, and flavones.

They adjusted the results for lifestyle factors linked to weight change, including physical activity, TV watching, and 17 dietary factors such as intake of sugar-sweetened drinks, fried foods, alcohol, caffeine, whole grains, and processed meats.

Results showed that over each 4-year period, women gained an average of 2.9 pounds (NHS) to 4.4 pounds (NHSII), and men gained an average of 2.2 pounds (HPFS).

Though small, even this amount of weight gain "will really add up over the long term," Dr Bertoia pointed out.

"Preventing just small amounts of weight gain or losing small amounts of weight can have an impact on your individual health and risk of cardiovascular disease," diabetes, and cancer, she said, adding, "It can also have a really big impact on population health."

Which Fruits and Vegetables to Target to Prevent Weight Gain

The findings — adjusted for lifestyle factors — suggested that people who ate more foods from specific flavonoid subclasses experienced less weight gain over time.

The following flavonoids had the greatest effect on weight loss: anthocyanins produced ?0.23 lbs per additional standard deviation (SD)/day, flavonoid polymers ?0.18 lbs per additional SD/day, and flavonols ?0.16 lbs per additional SD/day.

Each increase in standard deviation of daily intake was linked to 0.16 to 0.23 fewer pounds (equivalent to 0.07-0.10 kg) gained over 4 years.

After fiber intake was accounted for, the findings remained significant for anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, and total flavonoid polymers but lost significance for the other subclasses.

One serving per day of many fruits often provides many more flavonoids than one standard deviation, which may put these findings into perspective. For example, eating just a half cup of blueberries per day would increase consumption of anthocyanins by 12 standard deviations.

Foods high in anthocyanins include dark red fruits like blackberries, red grapes, raspberries, cherries, blueberries, and strawberries, with the latter two fruits also high in flavonoid polymers, as are tea, pecans, and apples. Tea is also rich in flavonols, along with onions and some types of beans, Dr Bertoia pointed out.

The observational nature of the study limits conclusions about whether or not the findings are related to overall improvement in diet quality, to the flavonoids themselves, or to something else, according to Dr Bertoia. Other limitations include the use of a self-reported FFQ.

Nevertheless, this paper builds on prior research by this group and "helps to refine the general advice that everyone should eat more fruits and vegetables. It helps give more information about which potential fruits and vegetables may be better choices to make more specific recommendations in future guidelines," Dr Bertoia said

In the United States currently, most people consume less than 1 cup of fruits, and less than 2 cups of vegetables daily. The authors suggest that this should be increased to 2 cups of fruits and 2.5 cups of vegetables.

The authors report no relevant financial relationships.

BMJ. Published online January 27 2016.

    
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