南卡羅萊納州Chapel Hill皮膚病科的Mark S. Fradin醫師和Vero Beach佛羅里達大學的John F. Day博士寫道:「節肢動物傳播的疾病可導致人類發病和死亡,這對全世界都具有威脅,從而強調了人類對有效驅蟲劑的需要。在某些情況下,預防傳播疾病的節肢動物的叮咬是至關重要的。在一種更好的驅蟲劑問世以前,含DEET的驅蟲劑仍然是這些情況下預防節肢動物叮咬的金方法。」

  研究人員對15名志願者進行了控制性實驗室研究。結果發現,一種以酒精為基礎、包含23.8%DEET的產品——Deep Woods Off的效力是最好的,能完全預防蚊蟲叮咬達5小時(平均預防時間為301.5分鐘)。對照釋放預備未能延長效力的持續時間。完全保護時間與DEET 濃度呈正相關;一種含4.75%DEET的產品預防蚊蟲叮咬的平均時間為88.4分鐘。但是,將DEET塗抹在手腕上,預防叮咬的時間僅為12至18秒。

  不含DEET的產品中,效果最好的是兒童用的Bite Blocker,含2%的大豆油,提供保護的時間平均為94.6分鐘。最好的香茅效力持續時間為20分鐘,以IR3535為基礎的一種驅蟲劑預防蚊蟲叮咬的平均時間為22.9分鐘。Avon生產的Skin-So-Soft,效力僅能持續9.6分鐘。另外一些研究發現,食用大蒜或維生素B1以及聲音發射器對預防蚊蟲叮咬無效。但是,其他研究發現,案樹油可能是最好的以植物為基礎的驅蟲劑。


DEET Still the Gold Standard to Repel Mosquitoes

Non-DEET Repellants Unreliable to Ward Off Mosquito-Borne Disease

By Laurie Barclay, MD
WebMD Medical News

Reviewed by Gary D. Vogin, MD

July 5, 2002 -- In a comparison of DEET-containing products to several insect repellants not containing DEET, reported in the July 4 issue of The New England Journal of Medicine, the DEET products fared best.

"The worldwide threat of arthropod transmitted diseases, with their associated morbidity and mortality, underscores the need for effective insect repellents," write Mark S. Fradin, MD, from Chapel Hill Dermatology in North Carolina, and John F. Day, PhD, from the University of Florida in Vero Beach. "Until a better repellent becomes available, DEET-based repellents remain the gold standard of protection under circumstances in which it is crucial to be protected against arthropod bites that might transmit disease."

Controlled laboratory studies on 15 volunteers revealed that Deep Woods Off, an alcohol-based product that contains 23.8% DEET, was best, providing complete protection for about five hours (mean protection time 301.5 minutes). A controlled-release preparation did not prolong duration of action. Complete protection time correlated positively with DEET concentration; a product containing 4.75% DEET protected against mosquitoes for an average of 88.4 minutes. However, DEET on a wrist band prevented bites for only 12 to 18 seconds.

The best product not containing DEET was Bite Blocker for Kids, containing 2% soybean oil, which provided protection for an average of 94.6 minutes. The best citronella was effective for about 20 minutes, and an IR3535-based repellent protected against mosquito bites for an average of 22.9 minutes. Skin-So-Soft by Avon lasted only 9.6 minutes. Garlic or thiamine ingestion and sound emitters were all ineffective in other studies. However, other research suggests that eucalyptus oil may be the best plant-based repellent.

"DEET has a remarkable safety profile after 40 years of use and nearly 8 billion human applications," the authors write. "Currently available non-DEET repellents do not provide protection for durations similar to those of DEET-based repellents and cannot be relied upon to provide prolonged protection in environments where mosquito-borne diseases are a substantial threat."

© 2002 WebMD Inc. All rights reserved.

2012/9/10 下午 04:28:57