中年婦女在停經之前的記憶力優於男性


  【24drs.com】根據線上發表於11月9日更年期期刊的一篇研究,中年時,婦女的記憶力優於男性,直到停經才失去優勢,因為她們的雌激素值下降。
  
  根據第一作者、麻州波士頓布萊根婦女醫院阿茲海默研究與治療中心共同負責人Dorene M. Rentz博士等人表示,多達四分之三的年長者發生記憶力相關缺損,婦女們在停經期間的健忘情況增加。不過,很少研究探討年齡相關的記憶缺損與性別的關係。
  
  為了檢視性別相關的記憶差異,Rentz博士等人招募了212名45-65歲的男性與女性,這些人從他們的母親懷孕期間參與「New England Family Study」研究起就被追蹤,這些人都完成認知測試問卷,女性參與者另外進行了荷爾蒙評估,以確認她們的停經狀態。
  
  整體而言,婦女在所有記憶測量表現都優於男性,包括認人記名聯想記憶測驗(Face-Name Associative Memory Exam,FNAME; β = -0.30;P < .0001))以及選擇性提醒測試(Selective Reminding Test,SRT; β = -0.29;P < .0001)。
  
  當比較婦女的認知表現與其停經狀態時,Rentz博士等人發現,停經前與停經期間的婦女,在FNAME (初始學習,β = 0.32;P = .01)與SRT (回憶,β = 2.39;P = .02)的表現優於已停經婦女;雌激素值較高的婦女也和SRT (回憶,β = 1.96;P = .01)表現顯著較佳有關。(作者們將8名正在使用荷爾蒙治療的婦女排除於這項亞組分析。)
  
  作者們指出,停經後婦女對於資訊的初始學習與檢索有難度,但是在鞏固記憶或儲存記憶方面則無難度,此外,停經後婦女的記憶任務表現與男性相當,除了延遲回憶的測試(7.5 vs 6.1;β = 0.80;P = .004)以及整體SRT (0.07 vs -0.3;β = -0.19;P = .04)。
  
  Rentz博士等人寫道,研究結果認為,雌激素值降低可能與停經後婦女的初始學習和檢索記憶問題有關,這或許可以解釋婦女在這段期間常報告的腦霧等症狀。
  
  作者們寫道,我們發現,停經期間失去卵巢雌二醇在形塑記憶功能上扮演重要角色。未來,我們希望瞭解婦女在中年初期的記憶改變經驗有哪些與健康老化有關,而哪些記憶缺損是臨床前期阿茲海默氏症以及老年時記憶缺損的早期指標。
  
  同時,醫師們應警覺,雌激素值的變化可能會損及婦女停經後的記憶。
  
  更年期期刊出版單位、北美停經協會執行主任JoAnn V. Pinkerton醫師在協會新聞稿中表示,應嚴肅面對腦霧與記憶問題方面的抱怨,這篇研究與其他文獻都顯示,這些抱怨和記憶缺損有關。
  
  資料來源:http://www.24drs.com/
  
  Native link:Midlife Women Outperform Men on Memory Tasks Until Menopause

Midlife Women Outperform Men on Memory Tasks Until Menopause

By Bridget M. Kuehn
Medscape Medical News

In midlife, women consistently outperform men on memory tasks until menopause, when they lose their edge as their estrogen levels dip, according to a study published online November 9 in Menopause.

As many as three quarters of older adults experience memory-related deficits, and women frequently report increased forgetfulness during menopause, according to lead author Dorene M. Rentz, PsyD, codirector of the Center for Alzheimer Research and Treatment at Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, and colleagues. However, few studies have examined how age-related declines in memory vary by sex.

To examine sex-related differences in memory, Dr Rentz and colleagues recruited 212 men and women between the ages of 45 and 55 years who have been followed since their mothers' pregnancies as part of the New England Family Study. All participants completed a battery of cognitive tests. Women participants also underwent hormonal assessment to determine their menopausal status.

Overall, women performed better than men on all memory measures, including the Face-Name Associative Memory Exam (FNAME; β = ?0.30; P < .0001) and the Selective Reminding Test (SRT; β = ?0.29; P < .0001).

When women's cognitive performance was compared on the basis of menopausal status, Dr Rentz and colleagues found that premenopausal and perimenopausal women performed better than postmenopausal women on FNAME (initial learning, β = 0.32; P = .01) and SRT (recall, β = 2.39; P = .02). Higher estrogen levels in women were also associated with significantly better performance on SRT (recall, β = 1.96; P = .01). (The authors excluded eight women who reported current use of hormonal therapy from this subset analysis.)

Postmenopausal women had difficulty with initial learning and retrieval of information, but not consolidating or storing memories, the authors note. Moreover, postmenopausal women's performance on memory tasks was comparable to men's, except on tests of delayed recall (7.5 vs 6.1; β = 0.80; P = .004) and overall SRT (0.07 vs ?0.3; β = ?0.19; P = .04).

The findings suggest that declining estrogen levels may be linked to problems with initial learning and retrieving memories in postmenopausal women, Dr Rentz and colleagues write. This may explain some of the symptoms like "brain fog" that women frequently report during this transition.

"We showed that loss of ovarian estradiol during menopause plays a significant role in shaping memory function," the authors write. "In the future, we hope to understand which memory changes experienced by women in early midlife are associated with healthy aging, and which memory deficits may be early indicators of preclinical Alzheimer disease and eventual memory decline in early life."

In the meantime, clinicians should be aware that changing estrogen levels may dampen women's memory postmenopause.

"Brain fog and complaints of memory issues should be taken seriously," said JoAnn V. Pinkerton, MD, the executive director of the North American Menopause society, which publishes Menopause, in a society news release. "This study and others have shown that these complaints are associated with memory deficits."

The study was funded by a grant from the National Institute of Mental Health. Dr Rentz has served as a consultant for Eli Lilly, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, and Biogen. She is also a paid member of the Neurotrack Scientific Advisory Board. Other coauthors have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

Menopause. Published online November 9, 2016.

    
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