研究者警告:父母親的社群媒體使用情況可能會傷害孩子


  【24drs.com】研究者表示,父母親在社群媒體上分享太多孩子的動態,可能會對孩子的名譽產生傷害。
  
  佛羅里達大學小兒科教授Bahareh Keith博士與法學教授Stacey Steinberg博士,聯合呼籲對照護者提出社群媒體的使用指引。
  
  Steinberg博士表示,我們想要改變社會話語,所以我們可以平衡父母的分享權與孩子的隱私權。
  
  Keit博士與Steinberg博士在美國小兒科學會(AAP)2016年全國研討會暨展覽會中發表他們的案例。
  
  教授們表示,家長可以透過在網路論壇與其他家長討論他們的經驗,而受益於從他們得到情感支持和實用建議,Steinberg博士表示,社群媒體可以是一個奇妙的工具。
  
  但是,父母親在發佈這些私人訊息時,常未意識到它留下的是不可磨滅、有時甚至是公開的記錄。Steinberg博士表示,父母親們在數位宇宙中發佈的訊息,可以觸及兒童的過去、也能深入他們的未來。
  
  舉例來說,當孩子在中學或申請工作時遇到網路霸凌,可能是因為網路搜尋時跳出當年父母發表有關孩子訓練使用便器時鬥鬧的一些評論。
  
  照片可以被重複地複製和共享,觸及比父母預期更廣泛的閱聽對象。
  
  澳洲的一篇研究發現,戀童癖網站上,半數的照片盜取自社群媒體。Keith博士表示,這真是令人不寒而慄。這只是個量化數據,而風險遠不只於此。這些並不是有裸露的照片,只是一般人的日常活動照片,所以,這是相當令人不安的。
  
  有些歐洲國家已經承認了隱私權的法律權利,允許個人強制網路公司刪除資訊或切斷該網站之連結。前檢察官Steinberg博士表示,但是,美國並未建立這類法律架構。
  
  兒童的隱私權載於聯合國兒童權利公約,但是,美國參議院從未批准該條約。
  
  她表示,美國的法院把言論自由置於隱私之前,法律賦予監護人做出有關孩童隱私權的決定,但在這種情況下,父母親是有利益衝突的。
  
  Keith博士警告,而且這些問題不只會尷尬,綁架犯或盜用身份者也可能會利用關於兒童的資訊,有時候,拍照當時的時間與地點等資訊會被嵌入照片的元資料(metadata)中。
  
  Keith博士表示,這就是公共衛生模式的來源,這非常有效。他指出,小兒科醫生可以為父母提供關於他們使用社群媒體方式的預期指導,很像提供關於汽車座椅或嬰兒猝死症候群的指導一樣。
  
  這兩位研究者建議父母採取以下預防措施:
  * 瞭解社群媒體網站的隱私策略。
  * 設定提醒,一旦你的孩子的名字在線上或透過谷歌(Google)等搜尋引擎被取得時發出警訊。
  * 想分享孩子鬥鬧行為的父母親,應考慮選擇匿名共享。
  * 分享孩子的位置之前務必小心。
  * 考慮給比較大的孩童對於線上分享的「否決權」。
  * 在發佈任何未穿衣情況下的孩童照片前,務必考慮風險。
  * 考慮發佈分享(這件事情)對於孩子未來幸福感的影響。
  
  Keith博士承認,很難確定產生多少傷害,因為很少研究探討這個問題。
  
  華盛頓西雅圖兒童健康、行為與發展中心主任、小兒科教授Dimitri Christakis醫師對此表示同意道,這是新的問題,它很重要,也是我不知道的事情。
  
  他表示,當他自己的小孩成為青少年時,他因為未經他們的同意就在臉書發佈照片而被孩子們罵。小兒科醫生通常會建議青少年注意他們發佈的內容,因為它會留下數位足跡。但是,我們未對家長提供諮商,大多數父母可能比我們的病人更無能為力。
  
  
  資料來源:http://www.24drs.com/
  
  Native link:Parents' Social Media Use May Harm Kids, Researchers Warn

Parents' Social Media Use May Harm Kids, Researchers Warn

By Laird Harrison
Medscape Medical News

SAN FRANCISCO — Parents may harm their children's reputations by sharing too much about them on social media, researchers say.

Pediatrics professor Bahareh Keith, DO, MHSc, and law professor Stacey Steinberg, JD, both from the University of Florida in Gainesville, have teamed up to call for guidelines on social media use by caregivers.

"We want to shift the social discourse so we can balance the parent's right to share with the child's right to privacy," Steinberg told Medscape Medical News.

Dr Keith and Steinberg made their case here at the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2016 National Conference and Exhibition.

Parents can benefit from the emotional support and practical advice they get by discussing their experiences with other parents in online forums, the professors acknowledged. "Social media can be a wonderful tool," said Steinberg.

But parents often post private information without realizing that it leaves an indelible, sometimes public record. "The information that parents place in the digital universe can reach far into children's past and far into their future," Steinberg said.

For example, a comment about a parent's struggle with potty training a child could pop up in an Internet search when the child encounters cyberbullying in middle school or applies for a job.

Photographs can be copied and shared repeatedly, reaching a much wider audience than parents intended.

One study in Australia found that half of all photographs on pedophilia websites had been pirated from social media. "That right there just gave me chills," Dr Keith told Medscape Medical News. "That just quantifies that it's a much bigger risk than I knew. They were not partial nude pictures, they were just pictures of people doing normal things. So it's extremely disturbing."

Some European countries have recognized a legal right to privacy that allows an individual to force Internet companies to delete information or links to websites. But the United States has not established such a legal framework, said Steinberg, a former prosecutor.

Children's rights to privacy are enshrined in the United Nations' Convention on the Rights of the Child. But the United States Senate never ratified that treaty.

Courts in the United States have put freedom of speech ahead of privacy, she said. The law gives guardians the role of gatekeeper in making decisions about children's privacy, she said, but in this case, parents have a conflict of interest.

And the problems can go beyond embarrassment, Dr Keith warned. Kidnappers or identity thieves can also make use of information posted about children. Sometimes information about the time and place a photograph was taken is embedded in the metadata that travel with the photograph.

"That's where the public health model comes in," Dr Keith said. "It's extremely effective." Pediatricians could offer anticipatory guidance to parents about the way they use social media, much like the guidance they offer about car seats or sudden infant death syndrome, he added.

The two researchers are recommending the following precautions for parents:

  • Know your social media sites' privacy policies.

  • Set up notifications to alert you when your child's name is online and is available through a search on Google.

  • Parents who choose to share about their children's behavioral struggles should consider opting to share anonymously.

  • Use caution before sharing your child's location.

  • Consider giving older children "veto power" over online disclosures.

  • Consider the risks before posting pictures of children in any state of undress.

  • Consider the effect sharing can have on your child's future well-being.

It is hard to determine how much harm is being done, because there has been very little research into that question, Dr Keith acknowledged.

"This is novel," agreed Dimitri Christakis, MD, MPH, professor of pediatrics and director of the Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development in Seattle, Washington. "It's important. It's something I wonder about."

When his own children became teenagers, they chastised him for posting pictures of them on Facebook without their permission, he said.

Pediatricians typically counsel adolescents to be careful about what they post, because it leaves a digital footprint, he told Medscape Medical News.

"But we don't counsel parents. Most parents are probably more clueless than our patients," he said.

Stacey Steinberg, Dr Keith, and Dr Christakis have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2016 National Conference: Abstract 319978. Presented October 22, 2016.

    
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