精神疾病歧視:一個全球性的問題


  【24drs.com】聯合國(UN)193個會員國的法律與政策調查發現,在婚姻、投票權和就業等方面,對於有心智疾病者,有明顯的歧視。
  
  世界精神病學協會(WPA)資助的這項調查的主要結果,於9月5日世界心智日發表,包括:
  * 37%的國家禁止有心智健康問題者結婚;11%的國家中,心智健康問題可使婚姻無效,或是可考慮廢止婚姻的理由。
  * 36%的國家中,禁止有心智健康問題者投票。
  * 近四分之一的國家,沒有法律防止對有心智健康問題者的招聘歧視。
  * 超過半數國家,對於解僱/終止並無法律明確保護。
  * 38%的國家否認有心智健康問題者的締約權。
  * 42%的國家不承認有心智健康問題者自己寫的遺囑。
  
  這些調查結果納入國際精神病學評論(International Review of Psychiatry)之心智疾病患者的社會正義(Social Justice for People With Mental Illness)特別報導。
  
  調查結果促成WPA建立一個心智疾病患者之個人權利法案(Bill of Rights for Individuals With Mental Illness),呼籲所有政府確保心智疾病患者、心智失能或心智健康問題者,不會因其心智健康狀態受到歧視,且於平等之基礎上,將其視為與所有國民擁有各項相同權利。
  
  WPA表示,已有18個組織支持這項權利法案。
  
  WPA理事長Dinesh Bhugra博士(MBBS, FRCPsych)在發表時表示,心智疾病/心智失能/心智健康問題者,有能力擁有權利與執行權利者,應與其他國民以同等基礎對待之。對於政策制定者、醫師、心智疾病患者在反歧視的挑戰,在於使用類似於公民自由、性別平等、性別弱視(LGBT)社群的策略,而這在世界上有許多地方已顯示有效。
  
  他指出,重要的是,全球的醫師與患者、照護者、家人以及代表這些團體的相關組織一起合作,反對歧視、修改法律,並確保這些都同樣適用。沒有任何理由可繼續歧視心智疾病患者、他們的家庭、以及那些關心他們的人-無論是專業或非專業的照護者。
  
  2015年9月的聯合國大會中,促進心智健康和福祉被認定為全球發展議程內的健康優先事項,正式成為一個可持續發展的目標。
  
  WPA指出,因此,聯合國會員國承諾非傳染性疾病-包括行為、發育和神經學疾病之預防和治療,構成為了持續發展的重大挑戰。
  
  聯合國可持續發展目標包括,於2030年前,透過預防與治療以及促進心智建康與福祉,達到使因這些疾病導致的早逝死亡率降低三分之一。
  
  資料來源:http://www.24drs.com/
  
  Native link:Mental Illness Discrimination a Global Issue

Mental Illness Discrimination a Global Issue

By Megan Brooks
Medscape Medical News

A survey of laws and policies of 193 United Nations (UN) member states reveals a significant level of discrimination against individuals with mental illness in the areas of marriage, voting rights, and employment, among others.

Key findings of the survey, funded by the World Psychiatric Association (WPA) and released September 5 on World Mind Matters Day, include the following:

  • 37% of countries prohibit marriage by people with mental health problems. In 11% of countries, mental health problems can render a marriage void or can be considered grounds for annulling a marriage.

  • In 36% of countries, people with mental health problems are not allowed to vote.

  • In nearly a quarter of countries, there are no laws preventing discrimination in the recruitment of people with mental health problems.

  • In over half of countries, there is no explicit protection in laws against dismissal/termination.

  • 38% of countries deny the right to contract to persons with mental health problems.

  • 42% of countries do not recognize the right of people with mental health problems to write their own will and testament.

The survey results were included in a special issue of the International Review of Psychiatry entitled Social Justice for People With Mental Illness.

The survey findings led the WPA to create a Bill of Rights for Individuals With Mental Illness, which urges all governments to ensure that persons with mental illness, mental disability, or mental health problems are not discriminated against on the basis of their mental health status and are treated as full citizens who enjoy all rights on an equal basis with others.

The Bill of Rights has been supported by 18 organizations, the WPA says.

"Those with mental illness/mental disability/mental health problems have the capacity to hold rights and exercise their rights and should be treated on an equal basis with other citizens. The challenge for policy makers, clinicians, and individuals with mental illness is to fight discrimination using strategies similar to civil liberties, gender equality, and sexual minority (LGBT) communities, which in many parts of the world have proven to be useful," WPA President Dinesh Bhugra, MBBS, FRCPsych, PhD, said in a release.

"It is important that clinicians around the globe work with patients, their carers, and their families, as well as with relevant organizations representing these groups, to challenge discrimination, change laws, and ensure that these are applied equally. There is simply no explanation for continuing discrimination against individuals with mental illness, their families, and those who care for them, whether they are professional or lay carers," he added.

At the UN General Assembly in September 2015, the promotion of mental health and well-being was recognized as a health priority within the global development agenda, officially becoming a sustainable development goal.

"UN state leaders therefore committed to the prevention and treatment of noncommunicable diseases, including behavioral, developmental, and neurological disorders, which constitute a major challenge for sustainable development," the WPA notes.

Targets of the UN's sustainable development goals include reducing premature mortality from these diseases by one third by 2030 through prevention and treatment and promoting mental health and well-being.

Int Rev Psychiatry. 2016;28.

    
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