低出生體重與社會退縮(不合群)有關


  【24drs.com】新研究認為,出生時屬於極早產或出生體重相當低的人,成年時會有不合群的人格特質,包括內向和避險情緒,而這與認知能力較低無關,認知能力較低則是與低出生體重有關。
  
  第一作者、英國華威大學心理系發展心理學暨個別差異教授Dieter Wolke博士表示,我們的研究是早產孩童研究中,追蹤期間最久的其中一個。
  
  我們發現,出生時極早產或出生體重相當低的人,成人時通常比較會不合群,包括更加內向、焦慮、害羞於社會互動,顯示出自閉症特徵,如不喜歡社會變革、不想結識新朋友、也不太可能承擔社會風險。
  
  這篇研究線上發表於7月27日的兒童疾病文獻期刊(胎兒與新生兒版)。
  
  在之前的一篇研究中,Wolke 博士等人發現,相較於足月出生者,極早產與自閉特徵及泛自閉症障礙有關,以及較少冒險行為、較差的神經認知表現。
  
  不過,有關神經質和責任心方面的研究結果則是各有矛盾。
  
  為了這次的新研究,Wolke博士等人評估了「Bavarian Longitudinal Study」於1985-1986年在德國出生的研究對象,包括200個極早產 (出生時妊娠年齡小於32週)且/或出生體重相當低(小於1500 g)者,與197名足月者的對照組。
  
  為期26年的人格特質追蹤評估中,使用的量表包括:有10個問題的「五大人格特質模型(BFI-10)」的10題德國版、有36個問題的「泛自閉症表現型問卷(BAPQ)」以及有20個問題的「Arnett刺激尋求量表(AISS)」。
  
  結果顯示,相較於足月出生者,極早產或出生體重相當低的人,成人時的自閉症特徵、內向、神經質和特點增加(P < .001)。
  
  一如預期,早產/出生體重低的人冒險精神也較低;不過,在責任心分數與親密尺度上沒有顯著差異。
  
  整體而言,早產/出生體重低的人顯著預測到一個單一個人資料因素(P < .001),而且,校正一般認知障礙後,這個影響依舊顯著。
  
  作者們寫道,研究結果認為,早產/出生體重極低的人都有不合群的個人資料。
  
  根據目前的研究結果,我們認為,早產/出生體重極低構成了整體不合群人格的一個重要風險:容易被擔心、較少社會參與、對冒險不感興趣、更加頑固與不善溝通。
  
  此外,這個個性因素與智力無關,與對照組相比,早產/出生體重極低者在成年時的智力顯著較低。
  
  與早產和低出生體重有關的諸多影響,理論上會造成一些差異,包括環境因素,如比較可能有住進加護病房的經驗、同儕互動、遺傳的影響和大腦結構改變。
  
  社會情感問題通常與白質區域及右眼眶額葉皮質受破壞有關。
  
  另外,作者們寫道,不良的胎兒環境會導致產前適應的內分泌與代謝功能改變,這些對於個人可能會有長期後果。
  
  重要的是,與更加外向的行為相比,症狀看似相對微妙、性格內向孩子的需求有可能得不到滿足。
  
  Wolke博士表示,不合群的孩童通常並不麻煩,但是在學校與社會上往往被忽視或未被注意。重點是要教育家長與教師這些相關資訊,幫助孩子們社會整合,例如家長讓其他孩童在家中過夜、邀請同儕、促進互動、[或]教師幫助整合團體合作、聚焦在幫助這些孩童。
  
  資料來源:http://www.24drs.com/
  
  Native link:Low Birth Weight Linked to Social Withdrawal

Low Birth Weight Linked to Social Withdrawal

By Nancy A. Melville
Medscape Medical News

Adults who were born very preterm or with a very low birth weight show socially withdrawn personality traits, including introversion and risk aversion, that are independent of lower cognitive abilities that are also associated with low birth weight, new research suggests.

"Our study is one of the longest follow-up studies of preterm children," lead author Dieter Wolke, PhD, professor of developmental psychology and individual differences in the Department of Psychology, University of Warwick, in Coventry, United Kingdom, told Medscape Medical News.

"We found that very preterm or very-low-birth-weight-born adults were more often socially withdrawn, including being more introverted, anxious, and shy in social interactions and to show autistic features such as not liking social changes, meeting new people, and less likely to take social risks."

The study was published online July 27 in Archives of Disease in Childhood (Fetal and Neonatal Edition).

Link to Autism

In a previous study, Dr Wolke and colleagues showed very preterm birth to be associated with an increased risk for austistic features and austistic spectrum disorder, as well as with lower risk-taking behaviors and lower neurocognitive performance compared with persons born at full term.

Findings regarding features such as neuroticism and conscientiousness, however, have been contradictory.

For the new study, Dr Wolke and his team evaluated data from the Bavarian Longitudinal Study on individuals born from 1985 to1986 in Germany, including 200 individuals who were very preterm (gestational age at birth less than 32 weeks) and/or with very low birth weight (less than 1500 g) and 197 control persons born at full term.

A 26-year follow-up assessment of personality traits used instruments that included the 10-item German screening version of the 10-item Big Five Inventory (BFI-10), the 36-item Broad Autism phenotype Questionnaire (BAPQ), and the 20-item Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking (AISS).

The results showed that adults who were born very preterm or with low birth weight showed increases in autistic features, introversion, and neurotic traits (P < .001) compared with those who were born at full term.

As expected, risk taking was also reduced in preterm/low-birth-weight individuals; however, there were no significant differences in scores on the conscientiousness and closeness scales.

Overall, preterm/low birth weight significantly predicted a single profile factor (P < .001), and the effect remained significant after adjustment for general cognitive deficits.

Long-term Impact

The findings suggest a socially withdrawn personality profile that appears consistent in preterm/very-low-birth-weight individuals, the authors write.

"Based on the current findings, we suggest that preterm birth/very low birthweight constitutes an important risk for a global socially withdrawn personality, as indicated by being easily worried, less socially engaged, less interested in risk taking and being more rigid and poorer in communication."

"Moreover, this personality factor is unrelated to intelligence which was found to be significantly lower in preterm birth/very low birthweight adults when compared with controls."

A variety of influences associated with preterm and low birth weight are theorized to play a role in the differences, including environmental factors such as early experiences in the intensive care unit, peer interactions, genetic influences, and alterations in brain structure.

Social-emotional problems are typically associated with regional disruptions in white matter and in the right orbital frontal cortex.

In addition, a poor fetal environment "could result in alterations in endocrine and metabolic functions as a prenatal adaptation which is likely to have long-term consequences on personality," the authors write.

Importantly, with symptoms that may seem relatively subtle in comparison with more outward behaviors, introverted children may have needs that go unmet.

"Withdrawn children are often not troublesome and in school and social situations are often neglected or not noticed," Dr Wolke said. "It is important that parents and teachers are educated about this and that they help them to socially integrate, such as parents offering sleep-overs, inviting peers, and facilitating interaction, [or] teachers helping to initiate group work, focusing on helping these children."

The study received funding from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Science. The authors have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. Published online July 27, 2015.

    
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