舉杯慶退休?有年紀的人要克制!


  【24drs.com】根據一篇有關退休與喝酒的新研究,許多退休者喝太多了,不過,不只是退休造成喝太多,與生活改變有關的許多其他因素也有影響。
  
  根據作者、紐約康乃爾大學Smithers研究中心、以色列特拉維夫大學的Peter Bamberger博士指出,退休的情況與條件可能會加重憂鬱感與漫無目的感,加上財務與婚姻上的壓力,會造成酒精與物質濫用。
  
  他在聲明中指出,研究顯示,退休時的情況─是被迫退休還是計畫退休─對酗酒和藥物濫用有很大的影響。
  
  Bamberger博士表示,一些最糟糕的因素加在一起,包括提早從熱愛的工作退休者會擔心他們的公司走下坡,在各組的研究中,這一組的物質濫用發生率最高。
  
  這篇研究結果長達20頁,發表於Work, Aging and Retirement期刊創刊號。
  
  Bamberger博士表示,退休者酒精濫用的另一個因素是,年長者無法應付突來的退休後生活空窗期,以及後來發生的健康走下坡或配偶親友逝世等打擊。
  
  他指出,即便是有計畫而退休的人,也可能無法掌控生活型態變化,結果是,很多人出現嚴重的財政困境。感覺不穩定、孤獨、鬱悶,也許這並不令人驚訝,不幸的是,很多退休者將酒精或毒品視為有舒適性的。
  
  退休也會引起婚姻關係緊張和睡眠問題,可能會誘發或惡化酒精誤用與濫用。
  
  Bamberger博士在文章中指出,年長者的酒精誤用盛行率「令人咋舌」,估計近300萬50多歲以上者有酒精濫用,且估計在2020年將達到近600萬人。
  
  Bamberger博士指出,在1990年代初期,酒精相關的健康問題佔醫院相關費用每年超過600億美金,隨著老年人口增加,這些數據可能大幅攀升。
  
  他指出,篩檢與介入確認可能會造成退休者酒精誤用的因素,可幫助他們免於藥物或酒精濫用。
  
  有時候,警覺就可以帶來正面改變,即使只是簡短的電話聯絡或網路回饋都會有幫助。另外,提供因應這些退休壓力的適當管道,退休團體和輔導人員往往可以在變成問題之前發現徵兆。
  
  Bamberger博士也指出,研究「尚未完全掌握」酒精相關的影響,越來越多年長者傾向延後退休,繼續工作到60歲之後。
  
  他寫道,60-65歲的受雇者約三分之一表示他們的工作與體力明顯有關,近三分之二表示他們的工作有很多壓力,使學者們更迫切要研究老年生活對年長者健康的影響。
  
  資料來源:http://www.24drs.com/professional/list/content.asp?x_idno=7153&x_classno=0&x_chkdelpoint=Y
  

A Toast to Retirement? Seniors Do It Too Often

By Megan Brooks
Medscape Medical News

Many retirees drink too much. However, it is not retirement alone that leads to overimbibing but rather a host of factors related to the life-changing event, according to a new comprehensive review of published studies on retirement and alcohol misuse.

The circumstances and conditions of retirement may fuel feelings of depression and purposelessness, as well as financial and marital strain, which can contribute to alcohol and substance abuse, according to author Peter Bamberger, PhD, of Tel Aviv University, in Israel, and Cornell University's Smithers Institute, in Ithaca, New York.

Research shows that the conditions under which people retire ─ whether they are pushed into it or plan for it ─ have "great bearing on alcohol and drug habits," he notes in a statement.

The "worst combination" of factors, he said, involves people who take early retirement from jobs they love because they fear their company will go under. "Among all groups studied, this one exhibited the highest incidence of substance abuse," Dr Bamberger said.

The results of the review are published in a 20-page article in the inaugural issue of the journal Work, Aging and Retirement.

Another contributing factor to alcohol misuse in retirement, said Dr Bamberger, is that older adults often lack the skills needed to cope with the sudden vacuum produced by retirement as well as painful events common to later life — such as declining health and the death of spouses and friends.

"Even if an individual plans for retirement, he/she might not fully grasp the changes that must be made to his/her lifestyle. As a result, many people experience serious financial straits. Feeling unstable, lonely, and depressed, it isn't surprising, perhaps — but it is unfortunate — that many retirees look to alcohol or drugs for comfort," he noted.

Retirement can also cause marital strain and sleep problems, which may precipitate or exacerbate alcohol misuse or abuse.

"Staggering" Numbers

The prevalence of alcohol misuse among older adults is "staggering," Dr Bamberger notes in his article. Estimates are that close to 3 million Americans in their mid-50s and older abuse alcohol, a figure that is expected to reach nearly 6 million by 2020.

Alcohol-related health problems accounted for more than $60 billion a year in hospital-related costs in the early 1990s. "With the graying of the population, these figures have likely risen dramatically," Dr Bamberger notes.

Screening and brief interventions aimed at identifying factors that might contribute to alcohol misuse in retirement may help prevent retirees from turning to drugs or alcohol, he points out.

"Sometimes awareness alone is enough to bring about positive change," he said. "Even short phone calls or brief Internet-based feedback can be so instrumental. The other way of reversing this trend is to provide ways of coping with the stresses of retirement. Retirement groups and mentors are often able to pick up on signs of deterioration before they become a problem."

Dr Bamberger also notes that research has "yet to fully grasp" the alcohol-related implications of the growing tendency of older adults to defer retirement and continue working well into their late 60s and beyond.

"The fact that over a third of those 60- to 65-year-olds employed report that their jobs involve significant physical effort, and nearly two thirds report that their jobs involved a lot of stress, makes it even more pressing for scholars to examine the impact of late-life work on older adults' well-being," he writes.

The research review was funded by the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse, the Smithers Institute of Cornell University, and the Henry Crowne Institute of the Recanati Business School, Tel Aviv University. Dr Bamberger is coauthor of Retirement and the Hidden Epidemic (Oxford University Press, 2014).

Work, Aging and Retirement. Published online November 12, 2014.

    
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