體重過重是癌症的第二重要風險因素


  【24drs.com】英國癌症研究協會「Cancer Prevention: Stacking the Odds in Your Favour」研究報告結論指出,超過4成癌症患者可藉由改變生活型態預防。
  
  報告指出,許多人認為癌症是因為命運或基因造成,發生與否與其運氣有關,但有明確的證據指出,約40%的癌症是因為人們有力量改變的事情所引起。報告結論指出,雖然保有健康生活不保證一定不會發生癌症,但健康的習慣可以增加有利於自己的勝算。
  
  英國癌症研究協會執行長Harpal Kumal博士指出,抽菸是迄今最重要的預防癌症因子,與至少14種疾病有關;喝酒也會增加癌症風險,酗酒又抽菸會大幅提高風險;他在新報告的引言中指出,除了抽菸之外,體重過重則是癌症的最大因子。
  
  他指出,我們的癌症風險正在飆升,除非我們解決了英國的肥胖流行病,英國癌症研究協會估計,每年約有17,000例癌症是過重和肥胖引起。2009年,英國和威爾斯近三分之二成人為過重和肥胖。與過重有關的癌症包括乳癌、大腸直腸癌、腎臟癌、子宮癌與胰臟癌。
  
  英國倫敦大學院、英國癌症研究協會的健康行為研究中心Jane Wade博士表示,不論男性與女性,過重都是僅次於抽菸的癌症重要風險因素。
  
  她在聲明中指出,許多人並不暸解肚子那圈「脂肪泳圈」是有活性的,會釋出荷爾蒙和其他化學物質,造成身體細胞分裂速度超乎正常,進而增加癌症風險。
  
  新報告列出對2,011人進行的調查結果,其中,26%為肥胖(身體質量指數>30 kg/m2),另32%屬於過重(身體質量指數25 - 30 kg/m2)。
  
  對於過重和癌症關聯之相當高度的認知,63%的回覆者同意過重是風險因素;大部分(69%)受訪者表示他們想要減重,這比率在過重或肥胖者更高(87%)。
  
  當肥胖和過重者被問及嘗試減重時遇到的困難時,多數(64%)表示缺乏意志力;將近半數表示曾經嘗試減重但未成功,有43%擔心其他事情,38%沒有時間運動和準備健康餐點。
  
  每天會攝取五蔬果者不到三分之一(29%),達到建議之運動程度(每週至少2小時30分鐘適度運動)者不到四分之一(23%)。
  
  Wade博士指出,報告顯示,過重者即使想要減重也知道癌症風險,缺乏意志力是主要的障礙因素;現代環境使人們更難減重,特別是廣告疲勞轟炸和便宜的即食餐點及速食,而未有充分的蔬果均衡飲食。
  
  英國醫學研究委員會飲食與人口健康主任Susan Jebb醫師對這些新研究結果發表評論時表示,令人鼓舞的是,多數人知道不良飲食和缺乏運動會顯著增加發生癌症的風險;但是,多數人也難以將「健康吃、多運動」在生活型態中付諸實踐,知與行之間的差異或許可以用來解釋為何肥胖人數持續增加。
  
  Jebb醫師結論指出,研究顯示,人們需要家人、朋友或健康專業人士的支持,來達到飲食和運動的改變。長期而言,重點在將我們的生活和工作環境變成有更健康且更容易的選擇,讓健康生活成為生活方式,而不論個人的意志力。
  
  資料來源:http://www.24drs.com/professional/list/content.asp?x_idno=6865&x_classno=0&x_chkdelpoint=Y

Excess Weight Is Second Most Important Risk Factor for Cancer

By Zosia Chustecka
Medscape Medical News

June 25, 2012 — More than 4 out of 10 cancers could be prevented by lifestyle changes, concludes a new report from Cancer Research UK, titled "Cancer Prevention: Stacking the Odds in Your Favour."

"Many people believe cancer is down to fate or 'in the genes' and that it is the luck of the draw whether they get it. But there is clear evidence that around 40% of all cancers are caused by things people mostly have the power to change," the report notes. "While leading a healthy life doesn't guarantee that a person won't get cancer, healthy habits can stack the odds in their favor," it concludes.

"Smoking is by far the most important preventable cause of cancer and is linked to at least 14 different types of the disease," comments Harpal Kumal, PhD, chief executive of Cancer Research UK. "Alcohol also increases cancer risk, and the combination of both smoking and drinking heavily increases the risk considerably more."

However, after smoking, excess weight is one of the biggest causes of cancer, he points out in the introduction to the new report.

"Unless we tackle the obesity epidemic in the UK, we risk cancer cases soaring," he notes. Cancer Research UK estimates that around 17,000 cases of cancer each year are caused by people being overweight and obese.

In 2009, nearly two thirds of all adults in England and Wales were overweight and obese. Cancers linked to excess weight include breast, colorectal, kidney, uterine, and pancreatic cancer.

"For both men and women, being overweight is, after smoking, the most important risk factor for cancer," comments one of the report authors, Jane Wade, PhD, from the Cancer Research UK's Health Behaviour Research Center, based at University College London.

"Muffin top" is surprisingly active

"What many people don't realise is that extra fat around the middle — their 'muffin top' — is surprisingly active, releasing hormones and other chemicals that can make cells in the body divide far more often than usual, which can increase the risk of cancer," she commented in a statement.

Main Barrier: Lack of Willpower

The new report outlines results from a survey conducted in 2011 individuals. Of these participants, 26% were found to be obese (with a body mass index >30 kg/m2), and a further 32% were classified as overweight (with a body mass index of 25 - 30 kg/m2).

There was a high degree of knowledge about the link between excess weight and cancer, with 63% of the respondents agreeing that "being overweight" was a risk factor.

The majority of people (69%) taking part in the survey said they wanted to lose weight, and this percentage was even higher (87%) among those who were classified as overweight or obese.

When individuals who were overweight and obese were queried about difficulties they encountered when trying to lose weight, the majority of respondents (64%) said that they lacked will power. Nearly half said they had tried to lose weight previously and were not successful, whereas 43% said they had other things to worry about and 38% said they did not have the time to exercise and prepare healthy meals.

Less than one third of all respondents (29%) said they managed to eat the recommended 5 fruits and vegetables each day. Even fewer (23%) managed to achieve the recommended level of exercise (at least 2 hours 30 minutes of moderate physical activity each week).

Need Sustained Lifestyle Changes

"Our report shows that even though overweight people would like to lose weight and are aware of the cancer risk, they feel lack of will power is a major barrier to shedding the pounds," commented Dr. Wardle.

"We know that the modern day environment makes it very hard for people to lose weight, especially when they are bombarded by advertising and easily tempted by cheap ready-made meals and fast food, instead of a balanced diet with plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables," she added.

Commenting on the new findings, Susan Jebb, MD, head of diet and population health at the UK Medical Research Council, said: "It's encouraging that most people recognize a poor diet and lack of physical activity significantly increase their risk of developing cancer."

"But it's also clear that most people find it hard to turn their good intentions — to eat better and move more — into sustained changes in their lifestyle," She commented in a statement. "This gap between knowledge and behaviour helps to explain why the number of people who are obese is continuing to increase."

Dr. Jebb concluded, "Research shows that to make sustained changes in diet and physical activity people need tangible support from family, friends or health professionals. In the longer term, it's important that the places we live and work make the healthier choice the easier choice, so healthy living becomes a way of life, not a matter of personal willpower."

The report was funded by Scottish Power, which has chosen Cancer Research UK as one its principal charities for the next 3 years, with the aim of raising over £5 million.

    
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