年輕人即使有防曬 還是很容易曬傷


  【24drs.com】根據發表於5月11日版美國疾病管制中心(CDC)發病率與死亡率周報的研究,曬傷這個黑色素瘤誘發因素依舊盛行,尤其是年輕人、白人成人,即使防曬措施增加也是如此。
  
  根據作者指出,18-29歲者最常發生曬傷。這篇研究中,50.1%的成人和65.6%的18-29歲年輕白人,在前一年內有至少一次曬傷。雖然近年來有更多人採取使用防曬霜、使用遮陽物品和穿著長度至腳踝的衣服等防曬措施,曬傷盛行率仍然很高。
  
  基底細胞瘤和麟狀細胞瘤是美國最常見的兩種癌症,不過,黑色素瘤比較會致命且其風險隨著曬傷增加。
  
  CDC和國家癌症研究中心的研究者回顧了2000、2003、2005、2008和2020年的「國民健康訪問調查」資料,這是一年一次的橫斷面人口調查,採用的是追蹤電訪方式;另外,為了此次研究,則是進行防曬行為和曬傷情況問卷調查。
  
  研究者僅對18-29歲成人進行分析,年齡校正相當於2000年的美國18-24歲和25-29歲人口。
  
  女性中,使用防曬產品(37.1%,95%信心區間[CI] 34.7% - 39.5%)和待在陰影處(34.9%;95% CI,32.6% - 37.3%)是2010年時最常見的防曬行為。戴寬邊帽(3.8%;95% CI,3.1% - 4.7%)和穿長袖衣服(5.3%,95% CI,4.3% - 6.6%)是最少用的方式。在陰涼處躲太陽的比率,2000-2008年時為29.4% -30.5%,2010年時增加到34.9%(P < .05)。使用防曬產品從2000-2010年則是整體增加(P < .01),穿及踝衣物比率則是從2005年的21.1%增加到2010年的25.7%(P < .01)。
  
  至於男性,穿及踝衣物是2010年時最常見的防曬行為(32.9%;95% CI,30.5% - 35.3%),接著依序是待在陰影處(25.6%;95% CI,23.4% - 27.9%)與使用防曬產品(15.6%;95% CI,13.8% - 17.6%)。
  
  男性戴寬邊帽(6.7%;95% CI,5.6% - 8.0%)和穿長袖襯衫(7.6%;95% CI,6.3% - 9.3%)則是最少見的防曬方法。待陰涼處的比率,2000-2008年時為18.5% -20.6%,2010年時增加到25.6%(P < .01)。穿長衣的比率從2005年的28.3%增加到2010年的32.9% (P < .01)。使用防曬品比率略增,從2005年的13.6%增加到2010年的15.6%。
  
  「Healthy People 2020」改善全國公衛的多項目標之一就是,使越多人可以減少日曬並且避免曬傷。
  
  作者們寫道,這些結果認為,需要更多努力來確認和運用有效的策略,使年輕成人改善防曬行為、避免曬傷和皮膚癌。
  
  這些措施中,他們建議將行為諮商納入醫師診療範圍內,並且更注意在一些娛樂活動中增設陰涼處和防曬用品。
  
  研究限制包括:依賴自我報告、適當使用防曬方法的認知可能各異、每年的調查問題不同、研究者無法確定曬傷是否因為曬太陽還是日曬床、沒有個人對陽光敏感度的資料、日曬時間與期間、多次曬傷等。
  
  資料來源:http://www.24drs.com/professional/list/content.asp?x_idno=6820&x_classno=0&x_chkdelpoint=Y
  

Sunburn Still Common in Youths, Despite Attempts to Avoid It

By Elizabeth DeVita-Raeburn
Medscape Medical News

May 12, 2012 — Sunburn, a predisposing factor for melanoma, is still prevalent, especially in young, white adults, despite the fact that sun-protective behavior is on the rise, according to a study published in the May 11 issue of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC's) Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.

Sunburns are most common in people between the ages of 18 and 29 years, according to the authors. In the study, 50.1% of all adults and 65.6% of white young adults aged 18 to 29 years reported having at least 1 sunburn in the previous year. "Although protective behaviors such as sunscreen use, shade use and wearing long clothing to the ankles have increased in recent years, sunburn prevalence remains high," write the study's authors.

Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the 2 most common cancers in the United States. Melanoma is deadlier, however, and the risk for it increases with the number of sunburns.

Researchers from the CDC and the National Cancer Institute reviewed data from the 2000, 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2020 National Health Interview Survey, a yearly cross-sectional survey of the population that relies on in-person interviews with follow-up telephone calls. Additional questions addressing sun-protective behaviors and sunburns were used for this study.

The researchers limited their analysis to adults aged 18 to 29 years, age-adjusted to the population of the United States in 2000 using the age groups 18 to 24 and 25 to 29 years.

In women, using sunscreen (37.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 34.7% - 39.5%) and staying in the shade (34.9%; 95% CI, 32.6% - 37.3%) were the most common protective behaviors reported in 2010. Wearing a wide-brimmed hat (3.8%; 95% CI, 3.1% - 4.7%) and wearing a long-sleeved shirt (5.3%; 95% CI, 4.3% - 6.6%) were the least common behaviors. Avoiding the sun by using shade ranged from 29.4% to 30.5% during 2000 to 2008 but increased to 34.9% in 2010 (P < .05). Sunscreen use increased overall from 2000 to 2010 (P < .01), and wearing long clothing to the ankles increased from 21.1% in 2005 to 25.7% in 2010 (P < .01).

For men, wearing long clothes to the ankles was the most common protective behavior reported in 2010 (32.9%; 95% CI, 30.5% - 35.3%). Next was staying in the shade (25.6%; 95% CI, 23.4% - 27.9%) and using sunscreen (15.6%; 95% CI, 13.8% - 17.6%), according to the study.

Men wearing a wide-brimmed hat (6.7%; 95% CI, 5.6% - 8.0%) and a long-sleeved shirt (7.6%; 95% CI, 6.3% - 9.3%) were the least common methods of sun protection. Shade use ranged from 18.5% to 20.6% from 2000 to 2008 but increased to 25.6% in 2010 (P < .01). The use of long clothing increased from 28.3% in 2005 to 32.9% in 2010 (P < .01). Sunscreen use increased slightly, going from 13.6% in 2005 to 15.6% in 2010.

One of the goals of Healthy People 2020, a list of national goals for improving public health, is to increase the number of people who reduce their sun exposure and avoid sunburn.

"These results suggest that additional efforts are needed to identify and implement effective strategies targeting younger adults to improve their sun protective behaviors and prevent sunburn and ultimately skin cancer," the authors write.

Among the measures they recommend are behavioral counseling in the context of physician's visits and more focused attention on providing both shade and sunscreen in recreational settings.

There were limitations to the study: It relied on self-report, proper use of protective methods could not be verified, survey questions varied from year to year, the researchers did not have the information to ascertain whether sunburns were a result of sun exposure or tanning beds, and there were no data on individual sun sensitivity, duration of time spent in the sun, or multiple sunburns.

Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2012;61:317-322.

    
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