懷孕期間父親的憂鬱症狀可能預期會有嬰兒過度哭鬧


  July 10, 2009 — 根據發表於7月小兒科期刊的一篇前溯、族群基礎研究結果,懷孕期間父親的憂鬱症狀可能預期會有嬰兒過度哭鬧。
  
  荷蘭鹿特丹Erasmus醫學中心的Mijke P. van den Berg博士等人寫道,嬰兒過度哭鬧或嬰兒腹絞痛是常見的問題,且通常會造成雙親的壓力問題,最後可能會造成虐童。之前的研究中,已知母親的憂鬱與過度哭鬧有關,但是迄今,有關父親憂鬱的影響所知有限。
  
  使用簡明症狀調查表蒐集有關母親和父親在懷孕20週時的憂鬱症狀,在4,426名嬰兒兩個月大時,評估這些症狀和過度哭鬧之間的關係。過度哭鬧的定義為,Wessel氏準則所指的,過去一週內,每天哭鬧超過三小時的天數超過三天。
  
  校正母親憂鬱症狀和其他相關干擾因素之後,父親憂鬱的嬰兒過度哭鬧風險,每個標準差增加1.29(95%信心區間[CI]為1.09-1.52)。
  
  研究作者寫道,我們的發現指出,父親在懷孕期間的憂鬱症狀也是嬰兒過度哭鬧的風險因素。此發現可能與基因傳遞、父親持續的憂鬱症狀對嬰兒產生的交互作用,或者婚姻、家庭、經濟壓力等間接相關的壓力源有關。
  
  研究限制包括,可能有不是真正的父親關係,對於哭鬧行為之問卷資料的信賴度,在一個更大型的前溯研究中納入本研究,有憂鬱症狀的雙親對於哭鬧行為的報告可能不同。
  
  研究作者結論表示,雖然我們的發現受到這些限制,而需要重現,但他們強調,研究早期嬰兒行為如過度哭鬧時,應將父母親的因素納入考量。荷蘭健康研究與發展組織支持本研究。研究作者宣告沒有相關財務關係。
  

Paternal Depressive Symptoms During Pregnancy May Predict Excessive Infant Crying

By Laurie Barclay, MD
Medscape Medical News

July 10, 2009 — Paternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy may predict excessive infant crying, according to the results of a prospective, population-based study reported in the July issue of Pediatrics.

"Excessive infant crying, or infantile colic, is a common and often stress-inducing problem for parents that can ultimately result in child abuse," write Mijke P. van den Berg, MD, PhD, MA, from Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, and colleagues. "From previous research it is known that maternal depression is related to excessive crying, but so far little is known about the influence of paternal depression."

The Brief Symptom Inventory was used to collect data regarding maternal and paternal depressive symptoms at 20 weeks of pregnancy, and associations between these symptoms and excessive crying were evaluated in 4426 infants at age 2 months. Excessive crying was defined with Wessel's criteria of crying more than 3 hours per day for more than 3 days in the previous week.

The risk of excessive infant crying was 1.29 higher per SD of paternal depressive symptoms (95% confidence interval, 1.09 -1.52) after adjusting for maternal depressive symptoms and other pertinent confounding factors.

"Our findings indicate that paternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy might be a risk factor for excessive infant crying," the study authors write. "This finding could be related to genetic transmission, interaction of a father with lasting depressive symptoms with the infant, or related indirectly through contextual stressors such as marital, familial, or economic distress."

Limitations of this study include possible false paternity, reliance on a questionnaire for collecting data on crying behavior, embedding of this study within a larger prospective study, and the possibility that parents with depressive symptoms might report differently on crying behavior.

"Although our findings are subject to some limitations and need to be replicated, they emphasize the importance of taking paternal factors into account when studying early infant behavior such as excessive crying," the study authors conclude.

The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development supported this study. The study authors have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

Pediatrics. 2009;124:e96-e103.

    
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