焦慮與增加手機依賴與濫用有關


  March 10, 2008 (喬治亞州沙凡那港市) — 根據佛羅里達大學Lisa J. Merlo和Amanda M. Stone的研究,一個183人的基準樣本中,自我報告比較焦慮者也有比較高的手機依賴性與濫用;此研究發表於美國焦慮異常學會第28屆年會的壁報中。
  
  研究者結論表示,焦慮異常者可以從臨床評估排除手機濫用或依賴中獲利。
  
  Merlo醫師向Medscape精神病學表示,兩篇研究指出焦慮程度與手機依賴症狀和手機濫用症狀有強烈關係;她指出,這或許的確是個問題,特別是焦慮病患所企圖尋找的某件事情。
  
  研究者寫道,手機以及個人數位助理(PDA)越來越普遍,人們對維繫與他人之間的聯繫有更大的壓力,病患應該知道與這些科技有關的症狀或者問題-手機成癮症候群。
  
  Merlo醫師表示,許多病患使用手機處理心智健康症狀,你可能會看到一個強迫症[OCD]患者使用電話確認事務,或者社交恐懼症者使用電話以避免和人接觸。
  
  研究者試圖檢視焦慮症狀和手機依賴之間是否有所關聯。
  
  他們招募了183名年紀在18至75歲(平均年紀 30.4 ± 14.5歲)的人參加研究(66.1% 為女性) ,研究對象平均擁有手機7.2 ± 3.8年(範圍從0-20年),其中約 36% 為學生。
  
  他們完成自我報告測量手機成癮與焦慮。
  
  以「手機科技成癮量表(CTAS)」問卷測量手機成癮,有38個問題,從0 (非常不同意)到5 (非常同意)給分,此問卷包括兩個部分:24問題排序手機科技的依賴性,14個問題排序手機科技濫用。
  
  手機依賴性的問題包括:
  * 如果我的手機訊號強度不夠的時候,我會感到難過緊張。
  * 我認為我花太多時間在講電話。
  * 如果我沒有接到電話會檢查我的手機有沒有開機。
  
  使用「情境-特質焦慮量表(STAI)以及「全球化人格量表(IPIP-NEO)」測量焦慮。
  
  【焦慮不安者 強迫的電話用戶】
  CTAS分數 (測量依賴性)範圍從26-117(平均62.6 ± 18.5),且正常分布,這表示手機依賴症狀的傾向 (例如,可以使用電話時感到比較舒適、強迫花比實際需要更多的時間在電話上、情緒與電話相關)在一般族群中因人而異且可以經由自我報告測量。
  
  大部分研究對象未報告有手機濫用症狀(利用手機處理工作、學校、關係或者財經問題等等。)
  
  不過,自我報告焦慮與手機依賴分數和手機濫用分數有顯著關聯。
  
  研究者寫道,未來的研究需檢視造成手機成癮的機制或者因焦慮症狀而惡化。
  
  美國焦慮異常學會第28屆年會:壁報 47。2007年3月6-9日。

Anxiety Linked With Increased<

By Marlene Busko
Medscape Medical News

March 10, 2008 (Savannah, Georgia) — In a normative sample of 183 individuals, those with greater self-reported anxiety also had greater cell-phone dependence and abuse scores, according to a study by Lisa J. Merlo, PhD, and Amanda M. Stone, from the University of Florida, in Gainesville, which was presented as a poster here at the Anxiety Disorders Association of America 28th Annual Meeting.

"Individuals who suffer from an anxiety disorder may benefit from a clinical assessment to rule out cell-phone abuse or dependence," the researchers conclude.

The anxiety subscales on the 2 study measures correlated very strongly both with cell-phone dependence symptoms and cell-phone abuse symptoms, Dr. Merlo told Medscape Psychiatry. "Maybe it's actually a problem, particularly in the sample of anxious patients — something to look out for," she added.

As cell phones and personal digital assistants become more common, individuals may experience greater pressure to remain connected or available to others, the researchers write. Patients might manifest symptoms of problematic attachment to these technologies or show symptoms of "cell-phone addiction."

Many patients seen clinically seem to use their cell phones to manage their mental health symptoms, said Dr. Melo. "You might see a person with obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD] who is using the phone to check things, or you might see a person with social phobia who is using the phone to avoid interaction with people."

The investigators sought to determine whether there was a correlation between anxiety symptoms and "cell-phone dependence."

They enrolled 183 individuals (66.1% female) aged 18 to 75 years (mean age, 30.4 ± 14.5 years) into the study. The study subjects had owned a cell-phone for an average of 7.2 ± 3.8 years (range, 0 to 20 years), and about 36% of them were students.

They completed self-report measures of cell-phone addiction and anxiety.

Cell-phone addiction was measured using a Cellular Technologies Addiction Scale (CTAS) questionnaire, which asks people to rate 38 items from 0 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). This questionnaire comprises 2 subscales: 24 questions rating cellular-technology dependence and 14 questions rating cellular-technology abuse.

Items in the cell-phone dependence subscale include statements such as:

  • "I have a hard time relaxing if my cell-phone signal does not have good signal strength."
  • "I think I might spend too much time on my cell phone."
  • "I check to make sure my phone is on if I have not recently received a call."

Anxiety was measured using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) trait anxiety subscale and the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP-NEO) anxiety subscale.

Anxious Individuals, Compulsive Phone Users

CTAS scores (measuring dependence) ranged from 26 to 117 (mean, 62.6 ± 18.5) and were normally distributed. This suggests that the tendency to display cell-phone dependence symptoms (eg, greater comfort when able to use the phone, compulsion to spend more time on the phone than desired, and emotional attachment to the phone) varies within the general population and can be measured via self-report.

Most participants did not report significant symptoms of cell-phone abuse (experiencing work, school, relationship, or financial problems due to cell-phone use, etc.)

Self-reported anxiety, however, significantly correlated with cell-phone dependence scores and cell-phone abuse scores.

Future research should examine the mechanisms by which cell-phone addiction contributes to or is exacerbated by anxiety symptoms, the researchers write.

Anxiety Disorders Association of America 28th Annual Meeting: Poster 47. March 6-9, 2007.

    
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