啤酒、酒可能可改善骨密度


  Oct. 5, 2004(西雅圖) - 從Framingham Offspring Study的資料分析顯示,男人可以飲用適度的啤酒改來善骨骼礦物質密度(BMD),婦女也可以藉由適度的飲酒以達到類似的效果。
  
  以上發現是由波士頓大學的Katherine Tucker教授,在American Society for Bone and Mineral Research(ASBMR)的第26屆年會中所發表。
  
  Tucker教授向Medscape表示,本項研究的對象包含1,631位女性,及1,295位男性;就某方面而言,啤酒及其他酒類的確有一些營養價值,因為啤酒含有矽(silicon),一般酒類含有植物性化學成分(phytochemical),而這兩種成分都對骨骼的健康有幫助。
  
  Tucker教授指出,研究發現,每日飲用啤酒1到2罐的男性,其髖關節的BMD提高了7%;對每日飲用1到2杯酒的女性而言,其臀骨的BMD提高了5%。
  
  當被問到這項啤酒與酒的研究結果是否會因性別而不同時,Tucker教授表示,這只是數字的不同而已,因為在研究中我們無法有足夠數量的飲酒男性,而飲用啤酒的女性數量也不足以作為判斷的依據;但是,Tucker教授表示,每日兩杯酒對男性可能是有幫助的,而每日1到2罐的啤酒對女性也可能會有助益。
  
  Tucker教授表示,重要的是「適度的」飲酒;也就是,兩罐啤酒或6盎司的酒對骨骼會有幫助,但如飲用過度的話,就會有害健康;事實上,每日使用蒸餾酒超過兩杯是會造成骨質舒鬆症的。
  
  在這項研究裡,研究人員使用問卷的方式評估啤酒、酒及其他酒精飲料的每日攝取狀況;再則,BMD的測量儀器使用的是Lunar DPX-L,測量的位置是臀部及脊椎;然而在調整過年齡、身體質量指數(BMI)、體能狀況、抽菸情形、鈣質及維他命D的攝取情形、更年期及雌激素的使用狀況等參數後,發現BMD值和酒及啤酒的攝取量之間有著線性的關係。
  
  Tucker教授指出,適量的飲酒(尤其是紅酒),有益於心臟的健康;她表示,好的營養物就是好的,並不會有那種只有益於心臟,或只有益於骨骼的那種營養物,而是對心臟及骨骼皆有益;另外還有其他的研究顯示,營養品對腦部健康也有重要的關係。
  
  在會議中,Tucker教授的海報吸引了大群的ASBMR成員,但是並不是所有的骨科專家都認為啤酒或酒會有益於骨頭健康;來自澳洲University of Melbourne的Roger Zebaze醫師向Medscape表示,較高的BMD值並不代表較低的骨折風險,骨骼的健康是視骨折的風險而定的。
  
  未參與本項研究的Zebaze醫師表示,如果研究中測量了試驗者的骨折次數,在臨床上來講,會比較有意義;Tucker教授表示,目前雖然Framingham cohort有骨折的資料,但是Framingham Offspring尚無法獲得。
  
  匹茲堡大學的Jane Cauley醫師向Medscape表示,以上的發現是很有趣,但並不是那麼驚奇;然而,研究的結果可能會有偏差,因為能夠適度飲酒的人很可能會有其他方面的好習慣,而這類的人通常會比較健康;這就類似之前的雌激素研究,看起來是有益於骨骼及心臟,但是在前導性的研究裡發現,雌激素對心臟的助益卻消失了;但是,看起來,本研究的確顯現出適當的助益。

Beer, Wine May Increase Bone D

By Peggy Peck
Medscape Medical News

Oct. 5, 2004 (Seattle) — An analysis of data from the Framingham Offspring Study suggests that men can improve bone mineral density (BMD) with moderate consumption of beer, while women gain a similar benefit from moderate consumption of wine.

The findings were reported during a poster session at the 26th annual meeting of the American Society of Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) by Katherine Tucker, PhD, a professor of nutrition and epidemiology at the USDA Human Nutrition Research Center at Tufts University in Boston, Massachusetts.

Dr. Tucker told Medscape that the findings from the study of 1,631 women and 1,295 men suggest that "beer and wine really do have some nutritional value." She theorized that beer may benefit bones because it contains silicon, which has been shown to promote bone health. Wine, on the other hand, is rich in phytochemicals, which also may benefit bones.

In the study, men who consumed one to two cans of beer per day increased BMD measured at the hip trochanter by as much as 7%; in women, one to two glasses of wine per day increased hip BMD by up to 5%, Dr. Tucker said.

Asked if the beer-wine findings suggest some essential difference between the sexes, Dr. Tucker said, "This is more a case of numbers. In this group of people we didn't have enough men who were wine drinkers or women who were beer drinkers to determine if men and women could benefit from either drink." But she said that it is possible that two glasses of wine could benefit men, while women might benefit from one to two cans of beer daily.

The important message, she said, is "moderation because while two cans of beer or two 6 ounce glasses of wine are good for bones, drinking more is harmful." In fact, she said that when distilled beverages are considered, "daily consumption of more than two drinks promotes osteoporosis."

In the study, the investigators used questionnaires to assess daily intake of beer, wine, and other alcoholic beverages. In addition, BMD was measured at the spine and hip using a Lunar DPX-L. After adjusting for other factors that influence bone health, including age, body mass index, physical activity, smoking, calcium and/or vitamin D supplements, menopause status, and estrogen use, "there was a linear relationship between BMD and consumption of wine or beer."

Dr. Tucker noted that moderate drinking — especially of red wine — has already been linked to heart health. "I think that what we are now finding out is that there is not a diet that is good for the heart and another that is good for bones," she said. "Good nutrition is good nutrition, so what is good for the heart is good for the bones." Other studies have suggested that nutrition also plays a role in brain health, she said.

But while Dr. Zucker's poster attracted crowds of ASBMR members, not all bone experts were convinced that beer and wine build strong bones. Roger Zebaze, MD, a research fellow at the University of Melbourne in Australia, told Medscape that "better BMD doesn't always mean fewer fractures. Bone health is really dependent on the fracture risk."

Dr. Zebaze, who was not involved in the study, said a more clinically significant study would be one that measures the number of fractures in drinkers. Dr. Zucker said that while there are fracture data on the original Framingham cohort, such data are not yet available for the offspring study.

Jane Cauley, DrPH, an associate professor at the University of Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania, told Medscape that the findings are interesting but not terribly surprising. Moreover, she said the results may be biased because moderate drinkers are also likely to "have other good habits. They are likely to be healthier in general. This was what we saw in the early studies of estrogen, which appeared to benefit bones and heart, but the heart benefit disappeared when estrogen was tested in a prospective study." At any rate, Dr. Cauley, who was not involved in the study, said the "benefit shown is very modest."

ASBMR 26th Annual Meeting: Abstract SA330. Presented Oct. 2, 2004.

Reviewed by Gary D. Vogin, MD

    
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