嗅覺器官的損傷常見於老人身上


  Nov. 12, 2002─根據美國醫學期刊十一月十三日的論文報導中,在上了年紀的人當中有很顯著的比例是有受到嗅覺器官損傷的影響,但大多數的人卻忽略了損傷的情況。
  
  加州大學聖地牙哥分校的Claire Murphy博士和同僚們所發表的文章中提到,特別這是老人或獨居老人中,有關他們的營養的問題及來自於火及氣體爆炸後對於老人是否能感受化學刺激反應的問題等,都增加了很多的危險。
  
  根據聖地牙哥氣味鑑定測試,此測試是一部份是來自於流行聽力減弱測試的研究,其中是以人口為基礎做出了代表性的研究,研究中特別針對威斯康辛州比佛水壩市,兩千四百九十一位居民進行了研究,其中的年分紀分佈在五十三歲到九十七歲間,這些居民參與了一項持續五年的試驗,結果顯示,患有嗅覺器官損傷的人,普遍約在24.5%上下誤差1.7%。
  
  嗅覺器官的損傷普遍是隨著年紀而增加,八十歲以上的老人約佔62.5% (其中有95%的信心區間落於57.4%-67.7%),而男性則更將近有高於兩倍的比例 (1.92, 95%落於1.62-2.19)。其中抽煙、中風、癲癇、鼻塞及上呼吸道感染的人也有非常高的比例是和嗅覺器官的損壞有關聯。
  
  而其中僅有9.5%人的比例有察覺到他們患有嗅覺器官的損壞,自我報告也隨著年紀的增加而減少。年紀在八十到九十七歲的老人中,自覺有嗅覺器官有問題的人,女性的比例為12%,男性則有18%。
  
  因此醫療師及看護都應特別留意,老人們的嗅覺器官是否損傷,Claire Murphy博士也強調,教導老人們及看護,有關嗅覺器官損壞所隱藏的危險是非常須要的,同時應如何去避免這些危險性的發生。
  
  
  
  
  

Olfactory Impairment Common in

By Laurie Barclay, MD
Medscape Medical News

Nov. 12, 2002 — Olfactory impairment affects a significant percentage of the elderly population, and most are not aware of their impairment, according to results of a study reported in the Nov. 13 issue of The Journal of the American Medical Association.

?Persons with chemosensory problems, particularly those who are elderly or living alone, are at increased risk of both nutritional problems and danger from fire or gas explosion,??write Claire Murphy, PhD, and colleagues from the University of California, San Diego.

As part of the Epidemology of Hearing Loss study, a population-based, cross-sectional study, 2,491 residents of Beaver Dam, Wisconsin, who were aged 53 to 97 years, took part in the five-year follow-up examination. Overall prevalence of impaired olfaction, assessed by the San Diego Odor Identification Test, was 24.5% ± 1.7%.

Prevalence of impaired olfaction increased with age: it was 62.5% in subjects at least 80 years old (95% confidence interval [CI], 57.4%-67.7%). Male sex was associated with twice the prevalence of olfactory impairment (adjusted prevalence ratio, 1.92; 95% CI, 1.65-2.19). Current smoking, stroke, epilepsy, nasal congestion, or upper respiratory infection were also linked to higher prevalence of olfactory impairment.

Only 9.5% of subjects were aware that they had olfactory impairment, and self-report became less accurate with increasing age. In the group aged 80 to 97 years, sensitivity of self-report was 12% for women and 18% for men.

?Physicians and caregivers should be particularly alert to the potential for olfactory impairment in the elderly population,??the authors write. ?There is a clear need to educate elderly persons and their caregivers about potential hazards accompanying impairment in olfactory function and how such hazards can be best avoided.??

JAMA. 2002;288:2307-2312

Reviewed by Gary D. Vogin, MD

    
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