與父母同睡一張床不會產生長期的行為影響


  2002年8月15日─孩子應該與父母同睡一張床嗎?8月份《Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics》雜誌報導一項為期18年的縱向研究顯示,孩子與父母同睡一張床,既沒有好處也沒有壞處。
  
  美國加州大學洛杉磯分校的Paul Okami博士指出,大多數專家不建議孩子與父母同睡一張床,且美國小兒科學會警告不要「每天」都讓孩子和父母睡在一起。人們擔心,這可能會引起睡眠障礙或影響正常心理發育。
  
  換言之,對世界上大多數兒童而言,與父母同睡一張床是很正常的,支持者認為如此可以增加親子間的親密關係。Dr. Okami說道,許多臨床醫師與兒童養育專家都建議,應該有目的的讓孩子與父母睡在一起,或是設立「家庭之床」。
  
  此次長期研究,是家庭生活方式專案的衍生,對1975年在加州出生的205位兒童及其父母進行追蹤隨訪。這些家庭中,有四分之三的家庭採取非傳統的生活方式,例如單親及群居,且許多認同「自然的」撫養孩子方式。
  
  當孩子5個月大的時候,35%的父母讓他們的孩子至少間歇地與他們同睡一個房間或一張床,有9%的父母讓孩子經常地與他們同睡一張床。在孩子三到五歲間,經常與孩子睡在一起的家庭占6%,孩子6歲時仍經常一起睡的占3%。在孩子六歲前與孩子睡在一起的非傳統的父母有20%且認為他們是「傾向自然」,結婚且生活在一起的父母有2%與六未滿6歲的孩子同睡。
  
  在兩三歲時侯,當時5個月大經常與父母同睡的孩子,並不比單獨睡的孩子更容易發生睡眠障礙。6歲的時候與父母同睡的孩子並不會影響行為或情感的成熟、情緒與性格、創造力、性幻想、關心或專注力。18歲的時候,兒童時期孩子與父母同睡的期間,並不影響其與父母、其他成人、家庭成員或同儕間的關係,也與藥物濫用、吸煙、自我認同度低、自殺想法、惡意破壞、破壞性或犯罪行為、性生活或對性經驗的滿意程度無關。
  
  這些發現並不支持與父母同睡會引起在兒童時期及青春期心理異常、行為問題、難於建立同儕關係與親密關係、或早期兒童睡眠障礙。相反地,它們支持對孩子存有小但廣泛的利益,尤其是男孩子,與父母同睡是屬於更廣泛的傾向於自然的撫養孩子方式的一部分,符合人性主義與平等主義的價值觀,且不會引起潛在的病態如性氾濫問題。

Sharing Parental Bed Has No Lo

By Laurie Barclay, MD
Medscape Medical News

Aug. 15, 2002 — Should children share a bed with their parents? In an 18-year longitudinal study described in the August issue of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, bedsharing offered no benefit and also no harm.

"Many — perhaps most — experts do not advocate bedsharing, and the American Academy of Pediatrics cautions against 'routine' bedsharing," lead author Paul Okami, PhD, of the University of California, Los Angeles, says in a news release, citing concerns about sleep disorders or interference with normal psychosexual development.

On the other hand, bedsharing is the norm for most of the world's children, and proponents suggest long-term benefits such as an increased capacity for intimacy. "A number of clinicians and child-rearing experts have advocated purposeful parent-child bedsharing, or 'the family bed,' " Okami says.

This long-term cohort study, an offshoot of the Family Lifestyles Project, followed 205 children born in California in 1975 and their parents. Three-quarters of these families practiced unconventional lifestyles, such as single parenthood and collective living, and many endorsed "natural" child-rearing practices.

When the infants reached five months of age, 35% of parents reported having their infants in the same room or bed with them at least intermittently, and 9% reported regular bedsharing. The percentage of families practicing regular bedsharing was 6% between ages 3 and 5 and 3% at age 6. Bedsharing before age 6 occurred in 20% of unconventional parents who considered themselves "pronatural" and in 2% of parents who were married and living together.

At 2 and 3 years of age, children who regularly shared a bed with their parents at 5 months were no more likely to experience sleep problems than those who slept alone. At age 6, bedsharing did not affect behavioral or emotional maturity, mood and affect, creativity, sexual fantasies, concerns or preoccupations. At age 18, the amount of time spent in childhood bedsharing did not affect ability to relate to parents, adults, family members or peers, nor was it linked to subtance abuse, smoking, low self-acceptance, suicidal ideation, vandalism, disruptive or criminal behavior, sexual activity or satisfaction with sexual experiences.

The authors suggest that these findings "do not support fears that bedsharing would lead to psychosexually troubled relationships later in childhood and adolescence, behavior problems and difficulties in peer and intimate relationships, or early childhood sleep problems." On the contrary, they support small but widespread benefits to children, especially to boys, provided bedsharing is "part of a wider set of pronatural child-rearing practices and framed by humanistic/egalitarian values," rather than reflecting underlying pathology such as sexual abuse.

Dev Behav Pediatr. 2002;23(4):1-10

Reviewed by Gary D. Vogin, MD

    
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